In October 1899, before the outbreak of the war in South Africa, Sam Hughes, the maverick Conservative imperialist, predicted ominously that the map of Africa would be painted Empire red only through the shedding of blood. By the time the Anglo-Boer War ended in May 1902, 7,368 young soldiers and 16 nurses had sailed from Canada for South Africa. About 270 died there, killed in battle or by disease. For almost three years, Canda was mesmerized by the war. It affected trade, industry, transportation, fashion, discourse, literature, graphics and music.